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nginx反向代理配置及优化

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第1部分:安装
1 建立用户及组
/usr/sbin/groupadd www
/usr/sbin/useradd -g www www

2 安装pcre 让nginx支持rewrite 方便以后所需
wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-7.8.tar.gz
tar zxvf pcre-7.8.tar.gz
cd pcre-7.8/
../configure
make && make install

3 安装nginx
wget sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.7.58.tar.gz
tar zxvf nginx-0.7.58.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.7.58/
../configure –user=www –group=www –prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx
–with-http_stub_status_module –with-http_ssl_module –with-cc-opt=’-O2′
–with-cpu-opt=opteron
make && make install

#注意上文中的–with-cc-opt=’-O2′ –with-cpu-opt=opteron
这是编译器优化,目前最常用的是-02
而不是3.后面对应CPU的型号,可参照:http://wiki.gentoo.tw/index.php/HOWTO_CFLAG

第2部分:配置及优化配置文件
1 nginx.conf 配置文件:
user    www www;
worker_processes 4;

# [ debug | info | notice | warn | error | crit ]
error_log    /usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/nginx_error.log    crit;
pid                /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;
#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by
this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;
events
{
           use epoll;
           worker_connections 51200;
}

http
{
           include             mime.types;
           default_type    application/octet-stream;
           source_charset GB2312;
           server_names_hash_bucket_size 256;
           client_header_buffer_size 256k;
           large_client_header_buffers 4 256k;

           #size limits
           client_max_body_size             50m;
           client_body_buffer_size        256k;
           client_header_timeout     3m;
           client_body_timeout 3m;
           send_timeout             3m;
#参数都有所调整.目的是解决代理过程中出现的一些502 499错误
           sendfile on;
           tcp_nopush         on;
           keepalive_timeout 120; #参数加大,以解决做代理时502错误
           tcp_nodelay on;

           include                    vhosts/upstream.conf;
           include                    vhosts/bbs.linuxtone.conf;

}

2 upstream.conf 配置文件(这也是做负载的配置方法)
upstream.conf
              upstream bbs.linuxtone.com {
                   server 192.168.1.4:8099;
               }

3 站点配置文件
bbs.linuxtone.conf
server
       {
              listen             80;
              server_name    bbs.linuxtone.conf;
              charset GB2312;
              index index.html index.htm;
              root    /date/wwwroot/linuxtone/;

                  location ~ ^/NginxStatus/ {
                          stub_status on;
                          access_log off;
                   }

           location / {
               root    /date/wwwroot/linuxtone/;
               proxy_redirect off ;
               proxy_set_header Host $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
               proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
               client_max_body_size 50m;
               client_body_buffer_size 256k;
               proxy_connect_timeout 30;
               proxy_send_timeout 30;
               proxy_read_timeout 60;
               proxy_buffer_size 256k;
               proxy_buffers 4 256k;
               proxy_busy_buffers_size 256k;
               proxy_temp_file_write_size 256k;
               proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500
http_503 http_404;
               proxy_max_temp_file_size 128m;
               proxy_pass    bbs.linuxtone.com;
              }

#参数都有所调整.目的是解决代理过程中出现的一些502 499错误
#Add expires header for static content
       location ~* .(jpg|jpeg|gif|png|swf)$ {
           if (-f $request_filename) {
               root /date/wwwroot/linuxtone/;
               expires            1d;
               break;
              }
       }

           log_format    access    ‘$remote_addr – $remote_user
[$time_local] “$request” ‘
                                                   ‘$status $body_bytes_sent
“$http_referer” ‘
                                                   ‘”$http_user_agent”
$http_x_forwarded_for’;
          access_log    /exp/nginxlogs/bbs.linuxtone_access.log    access;

}

注:第二种代理方式
nginx
处理下图片,html等静态的东西.其它动态由apache处理.因此apache也需要做一些参数调整.
设置图片等过期时间.缓解请求.

如果源与nginx在同一台机器建议使用如下方法:
                   location / {
                              proxy_pass    192.168.1.4:8099/;
                              proxy_redirect default ;
                   }

针对不同的目录进行代理把下面的配置放到根目录代理的上面
                  location /linuxtone/ {
                              proxy_pass
192.168.1.4:8099/linuxtone/;
                              proxy_redirect default ;
                   }

4 源配置
<VirtualHost 192.168.1.4:8099>
          ServerAdmin liuyu105#gmail.com
          DocumentRoot /date/wwwroot/linuxtone
          ServerName bbs.linuxtone.com
          ErrorLog logs/linuxtone_error_log
       CustomLog “|/usr/local/sbin/cronolog
logs/linuxtone_access_log.%Y%m%d” combined
</VirtualHost>

第3部分:源的优化
1 apache-mpm.conf
<IfModule mpm_prefork_module>
          StartServers                    15
          MinSpareServers             15
          MaxSpareServers            30
          ServerLimit                 2536
          MaxClients                    2048
          MaxRequestsPerChild     1500
</IfModule>

2 apache-keepalive
Timeout 120   #与nginx的保持一至
KeepAlive On
MaxKeepAliveRequests 400
KeepAliveTimeout 7

第4部分:PHP的优化
优化一:将PHP由之前的xcache换成eaccelerator
1 安装
wget
bart.eaccelerator.net/source/0.9.5.3/eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.5.3/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
../configure –enable-eaccelerator=shared
–with-php-config=/usr/local/php5/bin/php-config
make
make install

注:PHP路径以安装为准!

2 配置
sed -i ‘s#extension_dir = “./”#extension_dir =
“/usr/local/php5/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/”nextension
= “memcache.so”n#’ /etc/php.ini
sed -i ‘s#output_buffering = Off#output_buffering = On#’ /etc/php.ini
sed -i “s#; always_populate_raw_post_data =
On#always_populate_raw_post_data = On#g” /etc/php.ini

配置eAccelerator加速PHP:
mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache
vi /etc/php.ini

按shift+g键跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:
[eaccelerator]
zend_extension=”/usr/local/php5/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so”
eaccelerator.shm_size=”128″
eaccelerator.cache_dir=”/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache”
eaccelerator.enable=”1″
eaccelerator.optimizer=”1″
eaccelerator.check_mtime=”1″
eaccelerator.debug=”0″
eaccelerator.filter=””
eaccelerator.shm_max=”0″
eaccelerator.shm_ttl=”300″
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period=”120″
eaccelerator.shm_only=”0″
eaccelerator.compress=”1″
eaccelerator.compress_level=”9″

优化二:联系开发重新编译php减少php的模块.以减少php进程所占用内存数.这块尽管影响不大,
但也有一定的作用.编译前也可以参照nginx的编译器优化方式安装.

第5部分:测试并启动nginx
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx

第6部分:nginx日志切割脚本
#!/bin/bash
# This script run at 00:00

# The Nginx logs path
logs_path=”/exp/nginxlogs/”

mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d “yesterday” +”%Y”)/$(date -d “yesterday”
+”%m”)/
mv ${logs_path}bbs.linuxtone_access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d “yesterday”
+”%Y”)/$(date -d “yesterday” +”%m”)/bbs.linuxtone_access_$(date -d
“yesterday” +”%Y%m%d”).log
kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`

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